Prostate cancer is generally observed among older men. Those above 65 years of age are at a higher risk. This cancer originates in the prostate, a small gland located in the lower abdomen. This organ surrounds the urethra and is located close to the urinary bladder. Prostate cancer is caused by the abnormal growth of malignant cells in the prostate. Here’s what you need to know about prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer usually falls under the broad category of cancer called adenocarcinoma. There are two main categories of prostate cancer. These two groups are based on the progression of the disease: aggressive or fast-growing, nonaggressive or slow-growing. The tumor in the nonaggressive type progresses slowly over time. On the other hand, the cancerous tumor spreads very quickly to other parts of the body, including the bones.
In the early stages, prostate cancer doesn’t show any signs or symptoms. As the disease advances over time, certain symptoms may start to manifest. Some of the critical symptoms include erectile dysfunction, sudden weight loss, and bone pain. Pain may be experienced in the chest, back, or pelvic areas. A person with advanced prostate cancer may also experience difficulty while urinating. In some cases, blood in semen or urine might be noticeable. Some also experience a decreased force in the urinating stream. Urinary problems are among the most common symptoms since the tumor could press against the urethra or the bladder.
- Risk factors
According to experts, there is no known particular cause of prostate cancer. When cells in the prostate undergo DNA modification, it leads to uncontrolled growth. The cells begin to divide rapidly and begin to accumulate, leading to the formation of tumors. A wide range of factors contributes to the abnormal growth of cells in the prostate. These factors can increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. One of the major factors is age; men above 65 years are at a higher risk. In addition, a family history of cancer can also increase the probability of developing the condition. Other notable risk factors include obesity and genetic changes.
- Treatment options
The treatment of prostate cancer depends on various factors. These include the severity of symptoms, the stage of cancer, pre-existing conditions, and the overall health of the patient. The form of treatment also depends on the type of prostate cancer. For nonaggressive types, doctors usually recommend active surveillance. Treatment is delayed. However, regular checkups are lined up to monitor the progress of cancer. On the other hand, there are many options to treat aggressive prostate cancer. These include surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, cryotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. Immunotherapy is also recommended in certain cases. A combination of two or more of these treatment options is usually used, depending on the severity of the condition.